Pollination and predation services in macadamia orchards (Limpopo, South Africa)
Work package 3 aims to examine two ecosystem services (ESs) and their potential trade-offs (pollination and biocontrol) in macadamia systems. The influence of land use change and climate change will be tested through an experimental setup with 12 macadamia orchards (six pairs). The pairs will be arranged along a climatic gradient with one orchard being situated in an intensively farmed region, and the other in a region with a high share of semi-natural habitats. There will be enclosure experiments carried out on each orchard to quantify the ecosystem services of predators (24 cages to monitor birds and bats, 24 fences around controlled areas) and of pollinators (gauze bags around ten branches per tree for bees and other visitors). Furthermore, ten branches per tree will be hand-pollinated to determine the maximum potential yield, therefore assisting in the capture of related yield gaps.